Integrated Circuits

There are thousands of different kinds of integrated circuits (ICs) for electronic appliances. They are the basis of current electronics. Most of these devices are designed for a particular application. However, most of these devices are designed for general-purpose use and this has made them be used in a wide range of circuits. They are generally classified into two groups: linear/analog integrated circuits or logicl digital integrated circuits. Most sophisticated integrated circuits combine both the analog and the digital roles in forming a chip. This is normally done to advance performance to a device. Currently, the most popular integrated circuits are as follows:

1. 555 timer

it is one of the earliest integrated circuits. It was invented back in 1971 and still remains to be among the most known integrated circuits (ICs) around. It is referred to as a timer circuit as the name suggests. It consists of an external capacitor that controls the timing interval. The 555 timer can be designed in various ways. It can work like an egg timer in one way. It is first set and after a period of time has passed it goes off. It is referred as the monostable. In another way, it works like a metronome. Pulses are triggered at regular intervals.Moreover, the 555 timer chip, designed as an eight-pin Dip package, one can also acquire a 556 dual timer that combines two different 555 timers in a particular 14-pin DIP set.

Features of 555 timer

a) Has a good temperature stability

b) Has adjustable duty cycle

0) Good timing

Uses of 555 timers integrated circuits.

a) Controls wiper speed.

b) it is configured in astable.

c) Controls the brightness of a lamp.

2. OP-AMPS

It’s a type of integrated circuit that contains numerous applications in electronics. They are of many different kinds but the LM324 and 741 are the most popular.

The LM324 was invented back in 1972. It contains four separate circuits in a particular fourteen-pin DIP package. It does not require separate either positive or negative voltage.

Features of LM324

1. It has a large DC voltage.

2. It’s independent of the voltage supply

3. Its output voltage is high

4. Has a wide bandwidth

The 741 was invented in 1968 and remains to be among the most common integrated circuits (ICs).Unlike the LM324 it involves both the positive (+ve) and the negative (-ve) voltage.

Functions of 741 integrated circuits

1. It provides protection of short circuit

2. Has low power consumption

Uses of OP-AMPS

a) It Measures the temperature of a certain environment

b) It Provides thermal shut down for a circuit

3. 74XX LOGIC FAMILY.

It is among the earliest integrated circuits that are still used widely. It’s purposely for digital electronics. It is the building blocks for logic integrated circuits. Complete microprocessors are not found in this kind of integrated circuits. Circuits that are found here include the flip-flop, logic gates, buffers etc.

4. 78XX VOLTAGE REGULATORS

A voltage controller is an integrated circuit that receives an input voltage. This voltage varies within a given range, which then results in an output voltage that has a persistent value, regardless of variations in the input. Symbol XX denotes real voltage controlled by the chip.


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